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Intel Core i3 10100 vs Intel core i5 7th Gen Unlocked
The Intel Core i3-10100 is a reasonably good CPU for people with about $300 to spend.
The Intel Core i5-7600K, by contrast, is quite unremarkable and doesn't manage to stand out in any way when compared to other products at that price point.
In either case, we suggest that you first check out a few other options at the $300 budget - it's likely that you'll find some better alternatives.
However, if you nonetheless want to learn more about the Intel Core i3-10100 and Intel Core i5-7600K, here's a summary of what we know:
The Intel Core i3-10100 was loved by reviewers at PCmag, a highly trusted source that performs reliable in-depth testing. It did great in its "The Best Budget CPUs for 2021" roundup where it was named its "Intel LGA 1200: Good for Discrete-Card Gaming, Occasional Content Work", which, in itself, makes it a product worth considering.
Taking a look at the Intel Core i5-7600K, we found that it hasn't managed to perform well enough to earn a spot in any CPU roundups done by sources that conduct their own, high-quality, hands-on testing. That alone makes it difficult to recommend.