What is the best alternative to Breadth-first search?
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Dijkstra is an uninformed algorithm. This means that it does not need to know the target node beforehand. For this reason it's optimal in cases where you don't have any prior knowledge of the graph when you cannot estimate the distance between each node and the target. See More
If we take for example 3 Nodes (A, B and C) where they form an undirected graph with edges: AB = 3, AC = 4, BC=-2, the optimal path from A to C costs 1 and the optimal path from A to B costs 2. If we apply Dijkstra's algorithm: starting from A it will first examine B because it is the closest node. and will assign a cost of 3 to it and therefore mark it closed which means that its cost will never be reevaluated. This means that Dijkstra's cannot evaluate negative edge weights. See More