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Pro Excellent support of LaTeX equations
Pro Small but powerful
It has file tree, can post article, can upload pictures, can render in pretty preview themes, and is small and fast.
Pro Supports publishing to popular web platforms
MWeb can publish Markdown files to various web platforms including (but not limited to) Wordpress, Metaweblog, Evernote, Blogger and Tumblr.
Pro Syntax highlighting in fenced code blocks
MWeb has syntax highlighting for some popular programming languages inside fenced code blocks.
Pro Supports publishing a static blog on FTP
Possible to manage your self-hosted static blog with your own css
Pro There's a free version, Mweb lite, on Mac OS and iOS
Pro Supports both its own database and external folders
So you can have a side project stored on its database, and your current notes on external folder, with simple files, that could be share with other apps.
Pro Drag & drop or paste photos to the editor and display
Supports adding pictures to a Markdown file either through drag-and-drop or by pasting it.
Con No free version
MWeb costs $14.99 and is available on the Mac App Store. There's a free trial available but it's only for 14 days which may not be enough to make a good evaluation of the software before buying.