C# was Microsoft's answer to Java, which it resembles. In the beginning C# was a Windows only affair. .NET also allows programming in other languages like VB.NET and F#. ASP.NET can be used for web development. The newer .NET Core allows multi-platform development.
Online tutorial and in browser tutorial.
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.NET offers rich functionality.
Can be designed visually with the Visual Studio designer for traditional Windows forms, WPF, or Web forms.
Pro 3rd Party support
Lot's of tools and libraries available.
Pro Can be used in a variety of fields
With Xamarin for Mobile (ios, android),
with .net core asp for server (linux, windows),
with .net core for desktop (windows, mac),
with mono for desktop (windows, linux),
with blazor for web client with webassembly.
However, it is not considered top for any of those categories, but it is top choice for Windows desktop with .net framework and top choice for Unity.
.net 5 will unify frameworks similar to JVM (just one).
Runs on Linux, Mac, and Windows.
Pro Supported By Microsoft
Constant updates and bug fixes to many popular frameworks, as well as great first-party support from Microsoft. This can be a con as well in certain circumstances.
Pro It is a C like language
Being a C like language counts in favor for it as a general purpose programming language, given the ease of using existing skills to pick up this language easily.
There are other superior languages that could be used as a general purpose, such as: F#, Haskell, but the complexity of those languages, being functional, make them strange to the usual C Syntax.
C# is better than C whenever garbage collection, Objects, classes, data access, are needed. But C is going to be the choice when hardware access and performance are paramount.
Con Learning curve
For a beginner the .NET framework can be daunting, the rich functionality means that things often can be done in several ways.
Con Very large runtime
Cannot be used for embedded programming.
Con Microsoft will mess up with the Visual studio installation
And all of a sudden you'll need to reinstall the entire thing just because it stopped working.
Microsoft assumes that every workstation is connected to the Internet then it is always pushing updates.
Con .NET is a mess
Troublesome in regards to being Microsoft centric, updates, security, excessively large, cross-platform issues, etc...
Con Windows OS centric
Not very good at being a cross-platform programming language.
Con Strictly object oriented
Con .NET is closed source and owned by Microsoft
And like always, Microsoft is to be avoided, no exceptions.