Best cross-platform password manager

Powered by the Slant Community & A.I.

Powered by the Community & A.I.

thermoplastics
desperand
Ryan
Nathaniel Blackburn
Shire Horse
Stuart Kearney
Endi Sukaj
Laura Kyle
Aubrey
Jonathan
Andris Pelcbergs
349 contributors
Up to date as of
After considering 37 password managers, the Slant community recommends LastPass for providing the best value, 1Password for offering the best offline experience and KeePass for the best free and open source pick. These recommendations are the result of thousands of contributions from the Slant community.
95
Slant Score

Best value

LastPass

LastPass will cover most people's needs for free and at $1/mo their premium plan is by far the most affordable for an online password manager. This coupled with the convenience of the cloud, great cross-platform support, and excellent extensions for all major browsers makes this the best online password manager.

Available on LastPass
Available on LastPass
Platforms
Web, Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, iOS, Windows Phone
Browser integration
Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, Maxthon, Dolphin
Cloud-dependant
Yes
Offline access
Yes
Multi-factor authentication support
Yes
Security
Ease of use
Platform support
Portability

Generous free version

The free version of LastPass covers the basic needs. You can store an unlimited number of items and share passwords. Using the browser extension (available for most major browsers) will allow you to generate strong new passwords when you're signing up for a new website, store account details, and fill-in username and password fields automatically.

The notable omissions are cross-platform sync and multi-factor authentication, which require a $1 per month premium plan.

Reliance on the cloud introduces potential risks

There is no way to opt out of saving all of your passwords on LastPass servers. You have to trust that their infrastructure is sufficiently protected and that the company itself has no way of accessing your data. In the case of LastPass, that trust is further called into question as their servers were breached in 2015 with attackers gaining access to hashed master passwords, per user salts and user emails. That information is not enough to make the stolen passwords usable, but it does illustrate that the convenience of the cloud poses an additional risk.

Other things to note

Supports multifactor authentication, data is encrypted locally, and even supports fingerprint identification. Unfortunately it's not open source and the pricing is known to change unexpectedly from time to time.

Gl0op
October 14, 2016

I finally decided to improve my password-related habits and start using a password manager to help organize my online life. I decided to go with LastPass because it seemed like the easiest one to use and it was cross-platform which was great since I’m usually using the same accounts (email, Paypal, Amazon, Facebook, etc.) both on my laptop and Android device. The free tier worked great but for $12/year it was well worth it to get the premium edition. My only complaint with it is that the Chrome plugin does not always fill forms correctly and I have to copy-paste passwords as needed. Other than that, it’s perfect!

94
Slant Score

Best offline option

1Password

1Password offers the best overall experience for an offline password manager.

Available on AgileBits
Available on AgileBits
Platforms
Windows, MacOS, iOS, Android
Browser integration
Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera
Cloud-dependant
No
Offline access
Yes
Multi-factor authentication support
No
Security
Ease of use
Platform support
Portability

The most polished offline password manager

1Password is designed with a keen eye for detail. Apps and extensions are easy to navigate. Small touches like website icons enhance both the aesthetics and the ability to identify your accounts at a glance. Search is always in an easily accessible place. It's stable and snappy. Everything is where you expect it to be and it's there when you need it. All this combined makes it a pleasure to use the software.

Expensive

A one person license to use 1Password on all supported devices (with limitations for mobile apps) costs $64.99. And while technically you can use 1Password for free indefinitely after the trial period expires, you are limited to 20 items which won't be enough for most people.

Offline means a bit more hassle

The downside of using an offline password manager is that you have to manage your password database yourself. If you, for example, change your computer, you will need to export your database, save it on an external drive ,and import it back into 1Password on the new device. It also means that if something happens to the device that stores your password database, your passwords may be lost. Consequently, it's recommended to have backups of the database which further adds to the hassle.

Other things to note

Checks for website vulnerabilities, has TouchID support, and regularly checks if there's any weak password in the database. Unfortunately it lacks Linux support. And while 1Password has a cloud-based and subscription-based solution, it's not as feature-rich or affordable as LastPass'.

Annerry
September 10, 2016

I was looking for a self-hosted solution for quite some time and KeePass did not quite convince me even if it was free. 1Password was able to satisfy most of the requirements I had. It's an offline password manager, it's easy to use and intuitive, and the UI is excellent and very pretty. The automatic audits on stored passwords and the large database of vulnerable website is a very large plus as well. It's a bit on the expensive side but I don't mind paying a bit more than usual to have a better service than usual. If it would also have been open source then it would have been a near-perfect solution for me.

91
Slant Score

Best FOSS option

KeePass

KeePass is a completely free and open source offline password manager. It takes care of all the core needs and can be extended to tackle a whole lot more.

Available on KeePass
Available on KeePass
Platforms
Windows, Linux, MacOS
Browser integration
Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome
Cloud-dependant
No
Offline access
Yes
Multi-factor authentication support
Yes
Security
Ease of use
Platform support
Portability

Completely free for any number of devices forever.

As long as the device (mobile, laptop, desktop) can install a KeePass client, then it can use KeePass free forever.

Anyone can verify the code since the software is open source

Because KeePass is open source anyone can review the code and make sure that it's secure enough to store your passwords.

Extensibility allows for additional functionality

If there's any additional functionality you wish KeePass had, there's a chance that a community-written plugin adds it. Or you may even decide to write it yourself. Extensibility allows KeePass to adapt to a situations beyond those that have been set by the developers of the software.

Harder to use

Basic convenience features that are part of the core offering of LastPass and 1Password, like form auto-fill, on KeePass are only available via community plugins. Some other features, like automatically saving a password in the database as you're signing up for a new service, aren't available at all.

No official mobile versions

While there are ports available for iOS, Windows Phone, and Android, there are no officially supported KeePass versions for mobile.

JMKade
August 1, 2016

After using LastPass for a long time and after their security breach I decided it was time to finally host my own solution. The obvious choice seemed to be KeePass. Automatically exporting all my passwords from LastPass to KeePass was easy enough since there's a KeePass plugin that lets you import passwords in CSV format and LastPass lets you export your passwords in CSV format so that was pretty easy (even though I had more than 200 passwords stored in LastPass). The KeePass client is not as pretty as the LastPass one but it gets the job done and the Chrome plugin was a bit hard to set up but I managed to do it. I'm quite happy with it now, especially because I get to manage and choose where my passwords are stored.

What others are saying

Here are some of the best reviews from around the web on password managers.

How they compare

When picking the best password manager for you, the Slant community thinks you should consider the following criteria: Security, Ease of use, and Platform support.
Security
Above all else a password manager has to be secure. In most cases the password manager is the single point of entry to all accounts for the user.
KeePass
    • Database is encrypted with 256-bit AES encryption. 256-bit AES encryption is secure enough to be used by governments, militaries and intelligence agencies.

    • Because KeePass is open source anyone can review the code and make sure that it's secure enough to store your passwords.

    • KeePass, unlike LastPass, does not require you to keep your password database on their servers. You don't need to trust that their servers are properly secured. You can store it however you wish.

    LastPass
      • All passwords are encrypted and decrypted locally so they're protected while in transit between LastPass servers and your device. It also means that LastPass never knows what your passwords are.

      • Passwords are encrypted with the 256-bit AES encryption. 256-bit AES encryption is secure enough to be used by governments, militaries and intelligence agencies.

      • LastPass was vetted by Steve Gibson. He is a well established security researcher best known for his work with Apple and Atari systems as well as founding Gibson Research Corporation. He was given access to LastPass' source code and confirmed that it's safe to trust its security.

      • Since it’s a cloud based solution, backups are done in a regular basis and it’s much harder to lose your passwords than it is compared to a self-hosted solution.

      • There is no way to opt out of saving all of your passwords on LastPass servers. You have to trust that their infrastructure is sufficiently protected and that the company itself has no way of accessing your data. In case of LastPass that trust is further called into question as their servers were breached in 2015 with attackers gaining access to hashed master passwords, per user salts, and user emails. That information is not enough to get to your passwords saved in the vault, but it does illustrate that the convenience of the cloud has additional risk.

      • As LastPass is closed source, it can't be completely vetted. You can't review it for security issues or be completely sure that there's no foul play at hand.

    1Password
      • Database is encrypted with 256-bit AES encryption. 256-bit AES encryption is secure enough to be used by governments, militaries, and intelligence agencies.

      • 1Password, unlike LastPass, does not require you to keep your password database on their servers. You don't need to trust that their servers are properly secured. You can store the database however you wish.

      • A feature called Watchtower cross-references known website vulnerabilities with stored login information using a database that is updated daily.

      • As 1Password is closed source, it can't be completely vetted. You can't review it for security issues or be completely sure that there's no foul play at hand.
    Security Specs
    LastPass
    1Password
    KeePass
    Cloud-dependant
    While cloud offers convenience features, a cloud-dependant password managers forces you to trust the company with your passwords, even if they're encrypted.
    Yes
    No
    No
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    No
    KeePass
    No
    Multi-factor authentication support
    MFA is a way to protect your login information by requiring multiple pieces of independent authentication factors. For example, in addition to requiring a password you might need to use a USB drive with a secret token.
    Yes
    No
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    No
    KeePass
    Yes
    Password auditing
    The strengthening/replacing of weak passwords.
    Yes
    Yes
    No
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    No
    Encryption systems
    AES-256, PBKDF2, SHA-256
    AES-256, PBKDF2
    AES, SHA-256, Twofish
    LastPass
    AES-256, PBKDF2, SHA-256
    1Password
    AES-256, PBKDF2
    KeePass
    AES, SHA-256, Twofish
    Multi-user support
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Contents of the database
    The digital records that can be saved within the database.
    Passwords, insurance cards, memberships, prescriptions, WiFi logins, credit card details and more.
    Passwords, credit card details, documents and more.
    Passwords, credit card details, documents.
    LastPass
    Passwords, insurance cards, memberships, prescriptions, WiFi logins, credit card details and more.
    1Password
    Passwords, credit card details, documents and more.
    KeePass
    Passwords, credit card details, documents.
    One time passwords
    A password that will grant you access to your password database just once.
    Yes
    Yes
    via plugin
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    via plugin
    Import & Export
    Ability to export all your information and import information from another password manager.
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Ease of use
    LastPass
      • LastPass is relatively straightforward. It comes with extensions for all major browsers that will take care of: generating strong new passwords when you're signing up for a new website, storing account details automatically, as well as filling in username and password fields automatically, etc.

      • Because LastPass is cloud-based, you can access your passwords from any device with a web browser and there's no master file to manage.

      • The interface for managing your saved passwords is somewhat noisy and unintuitive. For example, clicking on an entry will not open it, it will only select it. You'll need to find the proper icon for each action. Many actions take more clicks than necessary.
    1Password
      • 1Password is designed with a keen eye for detail. Apps and extensions are easy to navigate. Small touches like website icons help both the aesthetics and the ability to identify your accounts at a glance. Search is always in an easily accessible place. It's stable and snappy. Everything is where you expect it to be and it's there when you need it. All this combined makes it a pleasure to use the software.
      • The downside of using an offline password manager is that you have to manage your password database yourself. If you, for example, change your computer you will need to export your database, save it on an external drive and import it back into 1Password on the new device. It also means that if something happens to the device that stores your password database, your passwords may be lost. Consequently, it's recommended to have backups of the database which further adds to the hassle.
    KeePass
      • Entries can be categorized in folders and subfolders and quickly found using search.
      • The interface is not quite as pretty or straightforward as that of 1Password or LastPass. It's information dense, somewhat plain looking, and requires more manual labor.

      • Basic convenience features that are part of the core offering of LastPass and 1Password, like form auto-fill, on KeePass are only available via community plugins. Some other features, like automatically saving a password in the database as you're signing up for a new service, aren't available at all.

      • The downside of using an offline password manager is that you have to manage your password database yourself. If you, for example, change your computer you will need to export your database, save it on an external drive, and import it back into KeePass on the new device. It also means that if something happens to the device that stores your password database, your passwords may be lost. Consequently, it's recommended to have backups of the database which further adds to the hassle.

    Ease of use Specs
    LastPass
    1Password
    KeePass
    Browser integration
    Browser integration enables convenience features such as form autofill and and the ability to automatically save passwords upon registering.
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, Maxthon, Dolphin
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera
    Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome
    LastPass
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, Maxthon, Dolphin
    1Password
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera
    KeePass
    Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome
    Cloud-dependant
    While cloud offers convenience features, a cloud-dependant password managers forces you to trust the company with your passwords, even if they're encrypted.
    Yes
    No
    No
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    No
    KeePass
    No
    Offline access
    Whether the password manager can be used without Internet access.
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Multi-user support
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Auto-fill
    Automatically fills in the saved login information when trying to log on to a website.
    Yes
    Yes
    via plugin
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    via plugin
    1-Click Login
    Allows you to use the password manager as a bookmark manager that automatically logs you in.
    Yes
    Yes
    via plugin
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    via plugin
    Multi-language support
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Login count
    The number of accounts you can save in the database for the same website.
    Unlimited
    Unlimited
    Unlimited
    LastPass
    Unlimited
    1Password
    Unlimited
    KeePass
    Unlimited
    Data syncing
    The possibility of syncing your passwords across devices.
    via cloud storage
    Over Wi-Fi, via cloud storage
    via cloud storage
    LastPass
    via cloud storage
    1Password
    Over Wi-Fi, via cloud storage
    KeePass
    via cloud storage
    Import & Export
    Ability to export all your information and import information from another password manager.
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Portable
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Platform support
    LastPass
      • LastPass is available on the widest variety of platforms. It's available on Windows, macOS, Linux, iOS, Android, Windows Phone, among other platforms.

      • There's a portable version of LastPass that works on Windows, Mac, and Linux and is compatible with portable versions of Firefox and Chrome. That way you can have the convenience of using features provided by LastPass browser extensions, like autofill, without having to install anything.

      • 1Password on iOS and Android can autofill passwords in default browser app.

      • Cross-device syncing costs extra.
    1Password
      • It's available on most major platforms - Windows, macOS, iOS, and Android - with a single license purchase.

      • Pro features on mobile apps cost extra. For Android most notable pro features include creating and editing items and folders, for iOS - multiple vault support, ability to view attachments, ability to store 2FA codes, and Apple Watch support.

      • The recommended way of running 1Password on Linux is via Wine. Instructions on how to do that can be found here. There's no native Linux version.

      • 1Password on iOS and Android can autofill passwords in default browser app.

      • 1Password 6 on Windows is lagging behind the macOS version. The interface is clunkier and it doesn't look as good either. Luckily, a new version for Windows is currently in beta that should make it comparable to the macOS version.

      • No app is available specifically for Linux, but a feature called 1PasswordAnywhere that's built-in to the 1Password vault provides read-only access of the database.

    KeePass
      • While KeePass is first and foremost a Windows application, it's available on macOS, Linux and BSD via Mono).

      • Ports available for almost any platform, there are even a couple of command line versions.

      • The design's focus on palm grips means claw and fingertip grips won't be as comfortable in this mouse.
    Platform support Specs
    LastPass
    1Password
    KeePass
    Platforms
    Web, Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, iOS, Windows Phone
    Windows, MacOS, iOS, Android
    Windows, Linux, MacOS
    LastPass
    Web, Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, iOS, Windows Phone
    1Password
    Windows, MacOS, iOS, Android
    KeePass
    Windows, Linux, MacOS
    Browser integration
    Browser integration enables convenience features such as form autofill and and the ability to automatically save passwords upon registering.
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, Maxthon, Dolphin
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera
    Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome
    LastPass
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari, Opera, Maxthon, Dolphin
    1Password
    Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, Opera
    KeePass
    Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Chrome
    Portable
    Yes
    Yes
    Yes
    LastPass
    Yes
    1Password
    Yes
    KeePass
    Yes
    Portability
    LastPass
      • Can be accessed from anywhere where there's a web browser with an internet connection.

      • There's a portable version of LastPass that works on Windows, Mac and Linux and is compatible with portable versions of Firefox and Chrome. That way you can have the convenience of using features provided by LastPass browser extensions, like autofill, without having to install anything.

      KeePass
        • KeePass has a portable version that can be put on a USB stick and run directly from it, allowing you to carry your password database with you at all times.

        • Password database can be put in cloud storage and accessed from any device with access to the internet and KeePass installed.

        • You can use whatever sync service you want, even roll your own, to get the benefits of an online password manager.

        1Password
          • The password database can be put in cloud storage and accessed from any device with access to the internet and 1Password installed.

          • You can use whatever sync service you want, even roll your own, to get the benefits of an online password manager. Requires an install on system.

          • 1Password offers syncing through cloud storage services such as Dropbox and iCloud and a possibility to sync locally over Wi-Fi if you opt not to use cloud storage.

          • There isn’t a “no installation” version of the software available, meaning there's no officially supported way of running 1Password from a USB stick. However, there is a workaround
        Portability Specs
        LastPass
        1Password
        KeePass
        Platforms
        Web, Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, iOS, Windows Phone
        Windows, MacOS, iOS, Android
        Windows, Linux, MacOS
        LastPass
        Web, Windows, Linux, MacOS, Android, iOS, Windows Phone
        1Password
        Windows, MacOS, iOS, Android
        KeePass
        Windows, Linux, MacOS
        Cloud-dependant
        While cloud offers convenience features, a cloud-dependant password managers forces you to trust the company with your passwords, even if they're encrypted.
        Yes
        No
        No
        LastPass
        Yes
        1Password
        No
        KeePass
        No
        Offline access
        Whether the password manager can be used without Internet access.
        Yes
        Yes
        Yes
        LastPass
        Yes
        1Password
        Yes
        KeePass
        Yes
        Login count
        The number of accounts you can save in the database for the same website.
        Unlimited
        Unlimited
        Unlimited
        LastPass
        Unlimited
        1Password
        Unlimited
        KeePass
        Unlimited
        Data syncing
        The possibility of syncing your passwords across devices.
        via cloud storage
        Over Wi-Fi, via cloud storage
        via cloud storage
        LastPass
        via cloud storage
        1Password
        Over Wi-Fi, via cloud storage
        KeePass
        via cloud storage
        Import & Export
        Ability to export all your information and import information from another password manager.
        Yes
        Yes
        Yes
        LastPass
        Yes
        1Password
        Yes
        KeePass
        Yes
        Portable
        Yes
        Yes
        Yes
        LastPass
        Yes
        1Password
        Yes
        KeePass
        Yes
        Other Specs
        95
        Slant Score
        95
        Slant Score
        Best value
        LastPass
        Available on LastPass
        94
        Slant Score
        94
        Slant Score
        Best offline option
        1Password
        Available on AgileBits
        91
        Slant Score
        91
        Slant Score
        Best FOSS option
        KeePass
        Available on KeePass
        Community Discussion
        Have a question about picking the the best password manager? Ask Daniel “Zimmer” Mann, Norman and the 347 other Slant community enthusiasts that contributed to this guide.
        Why should I use a password manager?

        It's advised that you use a different password for all the accounts you own. This is because if you use the same password everywhere and a website with poor security is hacked, then the password for all your accounts will be in the open. A password manager removes the issue of having to remember hundreds of passwords. Another issue is that of using strong passwords composed of a combination of letters (both uppercase and lowercase), numbers, and symbols. This is because brute-force attacks are getting stronger each day and are able to try up to 4 billion passwords in about 10 seconds. A long, random password is next to impossible to be broken using a brute-force attack and most password managers can generate random passwords of a predefined length.

        Endi Sukaj's avatar
        Endi Sukaj
        What's the best way to sync a Keepass database across different devices?

        You can use any free cloud hosting service that has a client for your devices. This can be Google Drive, Dropbox, Box, etc. If you are feeling paranoid about free cloud services you can use Syncthing which is completely free and safe since it doesn't store anything in any server. Or if you are feeling adventurous, you can use a combination of rsync, git, or ftp to store your database in a remote machine.

        Aubrey's avatar
        Aubrey
        Should I aim to use an open source password manager?

        It generally depends on the password manager but generally it's best to use an open source solution when it comes to security and things like password managers. If an open source password manager has an active and healthy development then it means that multiple (sometimes hundreds or thousands) experts are actively working and updating the password manager to make sure it's as safe as possible. Even if you are not an expert and don't understand the code, at least you can be sure that everything is out in the open, while you can never be sure what happens behind the scenes in closed-source projects.

        Xavi's avatar
        Xavi
        Are you a password manager enthusiast?
        Join in with the Slant community to improve and discuss this guide.
        Welcome to the Slant Community
        Stop spending hours researching
        Slant is written by a community helping you be informed. Let us know what you’re passionate about to get an awesome personalized feed.